Unified Theory 1 & 2 (UTAUT)

UTAUT 1

  • Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)
  • Developed by Venkatesh et al. (2003).
  • Attempt to create one single model which integrates the quintessence of eight previous innovation acceptance theories.
  • Is aimed at providing an holistic insight into all factors, which have an influence on the behavioural intention towards the use of a new technology.
  • Was created to evaluate the use of a new technology within an organization (not for the consumer market).

The various factors which build our intentions and are related to behaviour.

UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2003)

According to the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology there are four key constructs. These are explained on the original example by Venkatesh et al. (2003) of using a Personal Computer (PC):

1. Expectation of performance

What use does a PC generate for the employees?

2. Expectation of effort

How much effort do employees have to contribute to use a PC?

3. Social influence

What do the colleagues and superiors of the employees say about using a PC?

4. Facilitating conditions

Do the employees know how to use a PC?

 

The first three constructs are direct determinants of the intention to use new technology. Facilitating conditions is a direct determinant of the intention to use a new technology and user behaviour.

The factors gender, age, experience, and voluntariness of use moderate the impact of the four key constructs.

 

UTAUT 2

  • Developed by Venkatesh et al. (2012) as an extension of the original model Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology.
  • Additionally includes factors relevant for the consumer market that influence the behavioural intention to use new technology.
  • Was created to evaluate the use of a new technology in the consumer market. (not for use of technologies within an organization)

Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) Model (Venkatesh et al., 2012: 160).  UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2012)

Venkatesh et.al. (2012) extracted factors of the original UTAUT model for the consumer context and extended it by incorporating the following three factors which improved the prediction of  behavioural intention and use behaviour. These are explained on the original example by Venkatesh et al. (2012) of using the internet:

1. Hedonic motivation

Is it fun for consumers to use the internet?

2. Price value

Is it a good value for money to use the internet for consumers?

3. Habit

Do consumers have routines in which they use the internet?

 

Criticism of UTAUT 1 & 2:

  • Very complex model due to the multitude of contructs.
  • Moderators raise explanatory power but also the models complexity.
  • Accordingly often applied without moderators.

Advantages of UTAUT:

  • Due to the multitude of factors it delivers the highest explanatory power of all standard acceptance models and thus helps to support the technology development process.

Field of Application:

  • Use of various technologies within an organization (UTAUT 1).
  • Use of various technologies within the consumer market (UTAUT 2).

To learn more about UTAUT, visit the sources below:

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., & Davis, F. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS quarterly36(1), 157-178.